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英语口译教程(第二版)--高级 05

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[00:01.00]英语高级口译资格证书考 试 高级口译教程第二版 第五盒;
[00:48.09]Unit eleven Catering Culture Text for Interpretation;
[00:52.28]Passage 2 English-Chinese Interpretation Text Interpreting;
[01:03.19]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[01:12.93]Many changes are taking place in Americans' food styles.;
[01:18.50]The United States is traditionally famous for its very solid;
[01:23.32]and unchanging diet of meat and potatoes.;
[01:26.79]Now we have many different alternatives to choose from: various ethnic foods,;
[01:33.59]nutrition-balanced health food, and convenient and delicious fast food,;
[01:39.20]in addition to the traditional home-cooked meal.;
[01:43.41]Ethnic restaurants are commonplace in the United States.;
[01:47.84]Because the United States is a country of immigrants,;
[01:51.96]there is an immense variety in its catering cultures.;
[01:56.66]Any large American city is filled with restaurants serving international cooking.;
[02:02.84]Many cities even have ethnic sections: Chinatown, Little Italy, or Germantown.;
[02:09.99]With this vast ethnic choice, we can enjoy food from all over the world.;
[02:16.04]This is a pleasant thought for those who come here to travel or to work;;
[02:21.22]they can usually find their native specialties.;
[02:24.37]Besides sections of the cities, there are regions;
[02:28.41]which are well known for certain food because of the people who settled there.;
[02:33.85]For example, southern California has many Mexican restaurants,;
[02:39.42]and Louisiana has a strong Creole accent to its food.;
[02:44.24]Creole is a mixture of French, African, and Caribbean Island food.;
[02:50.95]Health food gained popularity when people began to think more seriously;
[02:56.61]about their physical well-being.;
[02:59.07]The very term "health food"is ironic because it implies that there is also"unhealthy"food;
[03:07.00]Health food includes natural food with minimal processing, i.e.,;
[03:11.61]there are no preservatives to help it last longer;
[03:15.78]or other chemicals to make it taste or look better.;
[03:19.99]Most health food enthusiasts are vegetarians: They eat no meat;;
[03:26.21]they prefer to get their essential proteins from other sources,;
[03:30.34]such as beans, cheese, and eggs.;
[03:33.84]Fast-food restaurants can be seen all over the country.;
[03:38.45]Speed is a very important factor in the life of an American.;
[03:43.14]People usually have a short lunch break;
[03:46.83]or they just do not want to waste their time eating.;
[03:51.17]Because fast-food restaurants are places;
[03:54.28]which take care of hundreds of people in a short time,;
[03:57.97]there is usually very little waiting.And the food is always cheap.;
[04:03.49]Some examples are burger, pizza and fried chicken places.;
[04:09.28]Americans' attitude toward food is changing, too.;
[04:14.06]The traditional big breakfast is losing popularity.;
[04:18.19]People are rediscovering the social importance of food.;
[04:22.48]Dinner with family or friends is again becoming a very special way of;
[04:27.09]enjoying and sharing. Like so many people in other cultures,;
[04:33.05]many Americans are taking time to relax and enjoy the finer tastes at diner,;
[04:38.32]even if they still rush through lunch at a hamburger stand.;
[04:42.79]Extra Text for Practice;
[04:47.53]Passage 1 Chinese-English Interpretation;
[04:55.25]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[05:05.33]如果某人说"我喜欢中国 菜"这种说法似乎过于简 单了.;
[05:13.01]其实并不存在所谓的"中 国菜"这一简单的概念.确 切的说法应该是喜欢某一 种菜系,;
[05:22.92]或者喜欢某一地区的中国 菜.像中国菜这样幅员辽 阔、历史悠久而又复杂的 国家,;
[05:32.44]千百年来必然会形成具有 鲜明地方烹饪特色的区域 性菜系或帮菜。;
[05:40.86]这种不可能避免的差异是 由地理位置、气候条件、 交通状况、人口迁移、;
[05:48.97]海外文化影响等因素所 决定的。;
[05:52.96]虽然中国究竟有多少种地 方菜系并无定论,但是有 关人士认为,;
[06:02.00]中国有鲁菜、川菜、 粤菜、扬州菜等四大地方 菜系。福建——台湾菜通常 被列为第五种地方菜系,;
[06:15.11]必须指出,这种区域划分 并无严格的地理界线。 例如,北京菜虽属鲁菜,;
[06:24.80]却也融入了一些川菜的特 色,并受到蒙古菜的 影响。;
[06:30.46]又如,扬州菜系的范围, 覆盖了人口居住密集的整 个长江三角洲地区,;
[06:38.71]汇集了无锡、苏州、 上海、杭州等菜式。而全 国名地方风味小吃以及小 数民族风味餐,;
[06:50.15]则数以千计,甚至难以 计数。;
[06:54.93]由于地方菜系之间存在着 频频交覆现象,以及相互 借鉴的情况,人们因而认 为,;
[07:04.71]区分地方菜系最为简便的 方法是按菜的知名度,而 不是按菜的烹调风格或口 味进行辨别。;
[07:15.42]中国四大菜系大致可按以 下这些特点区分:;
[07:21.20]鲁菜通常较咸,汁色普遍 较浅。鲁菜注重选料,精 于刀工,善于炊技。;
[07:33.70]作为我国北方菜系的代 表,鲁菜烹饪技术广泛 用于明清两代的宫廷菜。;
[07:43.13]川菜选料范围大,调味 及炊技变化多样。据统 计,川菜的品种在五千 以上。;
[07:53.84]川菜最大的特点是口味 重,以麻辣著称。;
[07:59.67]最难归类的粤菜强调轻 炒浅煮,选料似乎不受 限制。;
[08:07.65]粤菜源于明清,在发展过 程中不仅吸收借鉴了中国 北方烹调和西餐烹调的精 华,;
[08:17.96]同时也保持了自己的传 统特色。;
[08:22.78]扬州菜以江苏省境内的扬 州、南京、苏州等地的地 方菜式为基础。;
[08:32.17]扬州菜注重选料的原汁原 味,在菜的装饰上讲究形 态的艺术性和颜色的鲜艳 性,;
[08:42.34]扬州菜实际上揉合了南北 系之精华。;
[08:47.56]也有人以八个字来归纳这 四大菜系的口味特点, 即“南淡北咸。 东甜西辣。”;
[08:59.31]Passage 2 English-Chinese Interpretation;
[09:07.78]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[09:18.17]You'll find restaurants for every situation in the United States.;
[09:23.00]If you're in a hurry, you may just want to grab some "junk food" at a grocery store,;
[09:29.23]or you can get a bite to eat at one of the many fast food chains, like McDonald's,;
[09:35.67]Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, or Taco Bell.;
[09:41.16]Or you can get a hero or submarine sandwich "to stay";
[09:46.20]or "to go" from a sandwich shop or deli.;
[09:49.88]Some of these places have tables, but many don't.;
[09:53.74]People eat in their cars or take their food home, to their offices or to parks.;
[10:00.54]If you prefer sitting down but still don't want to spend much,you can try a cafeteria.;
[10:08.22]At all of these places you pick and choose your own food and then pay at a cash register;
[10:15.63]but you usually have to clear the table when you finish!;
[10:20.28]Coffee shops are usually less expensive and less dressy than fine restaurants.;
[10:26.86]So are pizza places, pancake houses, sandwich shops and family restaurants.;
[10:34.88]But the name of a restaurant won't necessarily tell you much;
[10:38.65]about the kind of place it is or the food it serves.;
[10:43.17]Like most fast food restaurants and cafeterias,;
[10:47.91]many restaurants don't serve alcoholic beverages.;
[10:51.81]This is often because they want people to feel comfortable brin- ging their children.;
[10:57.86]Minors can eat at restaurants that serve beer and wine,;
[11:02.29]but they are not allowed to enter pubs, taverns, cocktail lounges or bars.;
[11:08.00]You may be asked to show some ID that proves your age before you go into a bar.;
[11:15.32]In the United States,;
[11:17.12]the law forbids people under the age of 21 from drinking alcoholic beverages.;
[11:25.32]Unit twelve China and Its Reform Text for Interpretation;
[11:36.20]Passage 1 Chines-English Interpretation Text Interpreting;
[11:47.16]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[11:56.77]我国人民按照“抓住机 遇,深化改革,扩大开 放,促进发展,保持稳 定”的方针,团结奋斗,;
[12:07.16]开拓进取,社会主义现代 化事业取得了重大成就。;
[12:12.90]我国的经济体制改革进一 步深化,国民经济快速增 长。;
[12:19.18]工农业生产效益明显改 善,国内生产总值增长 率达到预期目标。;
[12:27.33]国家财政收入总额首次破 万亿元,达到11,377亿 元。科技教育和社会事业 全面发展,;
[12:39.75]技术创新和科技成果转化 的步伐加快。教育改革迈 出新的步伐,素质教育逐 步推进。;
[12:48.91]环境保护和生态建设明显 加强。文学艺术、新闻出 版、广播影视、计划生 育、;
[12:58.74]卫生体育等各项事业都取 得了新成绩。人民生活进 一步改善,社会保持稳 定。;
[13:07.82]我们伟大的祖国欣欣向 荣,各项事业蒸蒸日上。;
[13:14.22]根据建设有中国特色的社 会主义市场经济体制的要 求,我们对财税、金融、;
[13:23.37]外汇、外贸、投资、价格 和流通体制进行了重大改 革。;
[13:30.62]由于全国人民上下齐心协 力,改革取得了预期的效 果。这将对今后的改革和 发展产生深远的影响。;
[13:41.76]继续推进改革开放和现代 化建设仍然是我们的中心 任务。;
[13:47.90]我们要继续执行中央关于 推动改革开放和经济发展 的一系列政策措施,;
[13:55.53]正确处理改革、发展、稳 定的关系,在提高效益的 前提下保持国民经济持续 快速健康发展。;
[14:06.32]切实加强社会主义精神文 明建设和民主法制建设, 促进社会全面进步。;
[14:15.84]我们要继续实施积极的财 政政策,这是当前扩大内 需直接而有效的手段。;
[14:24.52]与些同时,我们要努力发 挥货币政策的作用, 综合运用多种手段调节经 济运行。;
[14:33.95]我们要巩固和完善宏观管 理体制改革的措施,进一 步转变政府职能。;
[14:42.64]我们要加快经济结构的战 略性调整,优化经济结 构,坚持市场为导向, 依靠科技进步,;
[14:52.90]采取适应社会主义市场经 济发展的新机制、新方 法。我们要进一步稳定和 加强农业的基础地位,;
[15:03.16]加大工业结构调整力度, 大力发展第三产业。实施 西部地区大开发战略, 加快中西部地区的发展,;
[15:15.27]是一项系统工程和长期 任务,必须统筹规划, 突出重点,分步实施。;
[15:23.60]东部地区要继续发挥科技 优势,不断提高经济素质 和竞争力,有条件的地方 要率实行现代化。;
[15:35.31]我们要深化企业劳动、人 事、分配等各项制度改 革,建立企业激励机制和 约束机制。;
[15:45.66]稳步推进国有经济的战略 性调整。积极探索公有制 的多种有效实现形式。;
[15:54.83]宜于实行股份制的国有大 中型企业,要利用股票市 场,抓紧进行股份制改 革。;
[16:04.21]坚持公有制经济为主体, 鼓励和引导个体、私营等 非公有制经济健康发展。;
[16:14.47]我们要重视和加强基础研 究和高技术研究,支持一 支精干的高水平科研队 伍,;
[16:23.90]在这些领域进行开拓性的 工作。继续推进科技管理 体制改革,使应用型科研 机构转制为企业,;
[16:36.45]我们要深化教育改革,全 面推进素质教育,努力培 养学生的创新精神和实践 能力,;
[16:45.92]促进学生德、智、体、 美全面发展。;
[16:51.10]我们必须抓住加入世贸组 织的新的机遇,以更为积 极的姿态扩大对外开放。;
[17:00.00]我们要继续衽以质取胜和 市场多元化战略,努力扩 大出口。;
[17:07.85]一是积极调整出口商品结 构,提高高新技术产品的 出口比重。;
[17:15.31]二是积极开拓国际市场, 特别要大力拓展非洲、拉 美、东欧、独联体等新兴 市场,;
[17:25.79]鼓励有能力的企业到境外 投资办厂,继续发展对外 承包工程和劳务合作。;
[17:34.08]三是改革配额管理和招标 的办法,优化进口商品结 构,;
[17:41.49]增加国内急需的关键 设备、技术和重要原 材料的进口。;
[17:48.59]我们要积极有效地利用外 资,进一步扩大对外开放 的领域和地域。;
[17:55.87]逐步推进商业、外贸、金 融、保险、证券、电信、 旅游和中介服务等领域的 对外开放。;
[18:06.49]放宽外商投资在技术转 让、内销比例和一些行 业持股比例的限制。;
[18:14.78]我们要积极吸引跨国公司 来华投资,尤其是对农业 基础设施、环保产业和 高新技术产业的投资;
[18:27.85]我们要国际多边舞台上继 续发挥积极和建设性的作 用。我们愿同世界各国人 民一道,;
[18:37.10]推动建立和平稳定、公正 合理的国际政治经济新秩 序,;
[18:43.81]促进多极化趋势的发展, 为实现世界的和平、稳 定、发展、繁荣作出不 懈的努力。;
[18:55.61]Passage 2 English-Chinese Interpretation Text interpreting;
[19:07.89]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[19:17.41]China is starting a new Revolution,;
[19:21.35]a revolution of modernization and globalization.;
[19:25.65]It is the coming of the Information Age to China,;
[19:29.47]happening with an astonishing speed.;
[19:32.27]Everything in China doubles every ten years;;
[19:35.56]some things double every two and a half; the Internet doubles every year.;
[19:41.97]One can start with a figure.;
[19:44.86]In June of this millennium year there were 12.6 million Chinese;
[19:49.82]who were "wired"— that is, they had access to the Internet.;
[19:54.47]Perhaps that does not sound all that impressive a figure;;
[19:58.02]after all, it amounts to only 1 per cent of the Chinese population.;
[20:02.84]But this number is more than doubling every year.;
[20:06.57]Last year, less than 0.5 per cent of Chinese had access to the Internet.;
[20:13.19]At this rate,more than 8 percent of the Chinese population;
[20:17.71]will be connected to the Net in less than three years.;
[20:22.05]That would be 100 million people,;
[20:24.99]a larger number than are currently connect- ed to the Internet in the United States.;
[20:30.56]In Beijing we paid a visit to Legend,;
[20:34.07]the leading Chinese computer and software company.;
[20:37.89]It has a $7 billion market capitalization on the Hong Kong stock exchange;
[20:43.54]and is 40 per cent owned by the Chinese Academy of Sciences,;
[20:48.06]which makes that institution a great deal richer than the Royal Society.;
[20:53.45]Of course, the high technology part of China's economy remains;
[20:58.02]only a tiny fraction of the whole.;
[21:00.82]The industrial and commercial sector employs;
[21:03.94]only about 20 per cent of Chinese workers,and high-tech is a small fraction of that.;
[21:10.25]High-tech is important in employment terms only in the coastal development zones,;
[21:16.17]such as Shenzhen and the conurbation of Shanghai.;
[21:20.30]Shenzhen,a 20-year-old high-tech city of four million people opposite Hong Kong,;
[21:26.87]has a gross domestic product per head of US$7,000,;
[21:32.36]which is expected to double by 2005.;
[21:36.48]The cost of living is only a fifth of that of the United States.;
[21:41.35]This city is as rich as California in terms of local purchasing power parity,;
[21:47.93]though that is only a very rough comparative guide.;
[21:51.30]China now has three economies — a huge 18th-century agriculture,;
[21:57.31]a large 20th-century industry and a small 21st-century advanced technology;;
[22:04.11]the newest is the most important for the future. It is already by far the richest.;
[22:10.64]This sector is also the youngest. Most of the employees are 30 years old or younger;;
[22:17.79]many are still students. As in the West,;
[22:21.30]this is the age group driving the Information Age.;
[22:24.64]They are the generation that understands what is already happening.;
[22:29.15]They know that the future of China as a modern economy depends on advanced technology;
[22:36.22]one cannot have the Information Age without information.;
[22:40.16]They know that these changes — economic, technological,;
[22:44.46]social and political — are continuing.;
[22:47.93]To the world, what is impressive is how much has changed;
[22:51.87]in the 20 years since Deng Xiaoping started the reform — the quintupling of economy;
[22:58.14]the recovery of Hong Kong and Macao, the success of the new development zone,;
[23:03.63]the opening to world trade, the television set in every living room,;
[23:08.76]the computer in every household, the rise in the expectation of life to Western levels;
[23:15.16]the greater freedom of employment and speech.;
[23:19.59]The young Chinese expect these favorable trends to continue;
[23:24.11]with the continuation of China's economic reform;;
[23:27.40]they think the China of 20 years ahead will be as much better than the China of;
[23:32.92]today as the China of today is much better than that of 20 years ago.;
[23:40.55]Extra Text for Practice;
[23:44.28]Passage 1 Chinese-English Interpretation;
[23:51.78]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[24:02.97]我国的技术曾经改变了世 界的面貌。早在公元1世 纪我国就发明了造纸术, 1000年后又发明了火药。;
[24:17.70]公元1500年前的整整1000 年间,我国无疑是世界上 技术最先进的国家。;
[24:28.40]但是此后的中国闭关锁 国,错过了工业革命,数百 年停滞不前,并受到西方 列强的欺凌达100年之久.;
[24:42.26]今天,改革开放的中国站 在一场技术复兴运动的前 列。外国资本开始以前所 未有速度涌入我国,;
[24:54.54]技术产业因此而受益。 中外投资者都认为, 软件、电信、材料技术、;
[25:03.36]生物工艺和保健技术是中 国的强有力的核心技术。;
[25:09.37]然而,我国新兴的技术产 业面临着巨大的挑战,只 有战胜这些挑战,才能恢 复历史的辉煌。;
[25:21.08]我们必须正视这些挑战, 学习和利用西方先进的技 术和管理经验,创造新发 明,开发新产品。;
[25:33.05]中国科学院附属沈阳自动 化研究所证明,中国有能 力把理论软件技术同工程 技术结合起来。;
[25:44.15]这家研究所曾经引进了美 国一家公司的技术、自动 控制装置样品、零部件和 培训项目。;
[25:53.97]通过技术引进和技术转 让,现在该所的技术和软 件同美国不相上下。;
[26:02.74]但是要使技术不断开户免费送体验金白菜, 开发更先进的产品,沈 阳自动化研究所需要大量 的资金投入。;
[26:13.53]研究所需要新的外国合 作伙伴。;
[26:17.79]我国有些大学研究所开发 的技术难以产生效益,甚 至找不到市场。;
[26:25.55]例如,久负盛名的上海交 通大学早在30年前就开始 研究集成电路,并成功地 研制出一个微型马达,;
[26:37.48]体积仅为一粒芝麻的四分 之一大小,比美国、欧洲 和日本的一些大学所设计 出的样品还要小,还要轻.;
[26:49.71]这种马达可用在微型自控 装置和外科手术内窥镜等 器具上。;
[26:57.91]现在的问题是,我国没有 一家医疗器械制造厂家拥 有必要的设施、;
[27:05.50]资金和技术来批量生产这 种微型马达。由于生产这 类产品需要大量的设备和 高水平的技术,;
[27:16.55]因此我们要求实力雄厚的 大公司合作,使样品尽转 化为商品。;
[27:26.12]我国是世界上的发明大 国,但是很多发明无法走 出实验室,归根结底是资 金问题。;
[27:36.42]我们希望风险投资机构和 私人权益投资者能参与解 决资金匮乏的问题。;
[27:44.18]这些机构的投资方式能使 它们得到的保护大于其他 直接投资商。;
[27:52.34]例如,某一投资基金可以 通过一家海外公司把资金 输入在华的某家公司。;
[28:02.08]这家在华公司盈利后,可 以赢利部分回流到该基金 属下的那家公司。;
[28:10.02]如果该基金希望得到这些 利润,它可以让那家海外 公司上市,通常可以在美 国上市。;
[28:19.32]同几年前相比,我们对风 险资本和直接投资有了更 多的了解,更富有经验。;
[28:28.35]我们将在短期内草拟一个 鼓励高技术公司的一揽子 计划,;
[28:34.71]建立吸引大量资本所必须 的法律和股市基础设施。 我们相信,在不久的将 来,;
[28:43.79]“中国制造”这几个字将再 次与改变人们生活的发明 联系在一起。;
[28:53.00]Passage 2 English-Chinese Interpretation;
[29:00.63]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[29:10.76]Mr.Chairman, I feel honored to be invited to attend;
[29:16.29]"Fudan International Conference on Stock Market Development";
[29:21.37]I would like to thank you,Mr.Chairman, for giving me the opportunity;
[29:27.08]to give a lecture on the topicof "Stock Market and Market Psychology";
[29:33.87]The economist John Maynard Keynes argued that market behavior could not be rational,;
[29:41.94]or subject to improvement,;
[29:44.27]since our existing knowledge did not provide a sufficient basis;
[29:49.31]for a calculated mathematical expectation of investment returns.;
[29:55.32]I think this observation is particularly true;
[29:59.09]when the object of speculation involves the application of a new technology,;
[30:05.41]such as the Internet. Modern financial theory attempts to surmount the problem;
[30:12.95]of an unknowable future by suggesting that returns can be predicted;
[30:19.36]by measuring the past volatility of share prices —;
[30:24.36]shares that exhibit higher volatility are expected to yield greater returns-;
[30:30.76]Yet this assumes the future will be a continuation of the past —;
[30:36.02]like steering a car by looking in the rear-view mirror.;
[30:40.27]Investors therefore remain heavily dependent on their emotions.;
[30:46.24]The feelings of"greed" and "fear" that drive markets remain consta- nt throughout the ages;
[30:53.87]The psychology of the market is one that includes both the psy- chology of investing;
[31:00.62]and the psychology of gambling.;
[31:03.65]There are the compulsive attractions of gambling in the market.;
[31:09.40]The undulating moods of the stock market,;
[31:12.25]alternating between its bull phase of energy greediness and grandiosity,;
[31:18.78]and the bear phase of timidity, anxiety, indecisiveness and self-doubt,;
[31:25.27]reflect the manic behavior of the gambling addict.;
[31:29.13]Speculation differs from most gambling activities;
[31:33.08]in that the beliefs of the participants affect the results.;
[31:37.60]In certain circumstances speculators are capable of creating;
[31:42.38]self-fulfilling prophecies.;
[31:44.83]Success in speculation is ultimately dependent on finding someone else;
[31:51.68]to buy your shares at a higher price than you paid for him or her.;
[31:58.43]Every speculative bubble resembles a chain lettor;
[32:03.34]in that profits are provided by late entrants to the market.;
[32:07.73]Everyone is attempting to anticipate the immediate intentions of his competitors.;
[32:13.74]In such circumstances, paying attention to shifts;
[32:17.64]in market psychology becomes essential.;
[32:21.72]The crowd mentality remains a potent source of investor irrationality,;
[32:27.55]whether in London's coffee house stock market of the 17th century;
[32:32.60]or in the Internet investment bulletin boards today.;
[32:36.85]Freud identified the key features of a crowd mentality: invincibility,;
[32:41.94]irresponsibility, impetuosity,contagion, changeability, suggestibility,;
[32:52.33]collective hallucination and intellectual inferiority.;
[32:57.59]Again, we find these traits during the later stages of a bull market.;
[33:03.95]What makes matter even worse is that speculators as a group are susceptible;
[33:10.44]to "cognitive dissonance" — they block out negative,or dissonant,;
[33:15.05]information and focus only on the positive aspects of their position.;
[33:21.06]This explains why speculators pay little heed to warnings.;
[33:26.15]Why are people unable to escape the lure of the crowd?;
[33:30.71]The answer can be found in the nature of our material ambitions.;
[33:36.06]The quest for wealth is calculated not in absolute but in relative terms.;
[33:42.20]We always measure our fortunes against those of our contemporaries.;
[33:47.50]Many people find it too painful to remain inactive while others are speculating;
[33:52.86]and making money. The individual has little to lose by assuming the same risks,;
[33:59.13]because when the market turns, his relative position is unaffected.;
[34:03.91]Usually, speculators appear to forget their painful experiences more and more quickly.;
[34:10.66]Hence we find the periodical recurrences of speculative booms.;
[34:16.63]There must be a vast fund of stupidity in human nature,;
[34:21.19]or else men would not be caught, a thousand times over,by the same snare.;
[34:27.68]The only way to avoid this fate is to maintain a contrarian position —;
[34:33.51]go against the market psychology — which,;
[34:37.33]of course, is both lonely and involves a great test of will.;
[34:42.99]Unit thirteen The Information Age Text for Interpretation;
[34:56.67]Passage 1 Chines-English Interpretation Text Interpreting;
[35:06.84]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[35:16.10]女士们、先生们:;
[35:18.69] 各位下午好!我很高兴 能出席这次中国网络产业 专题报告会的开幕典礼, 并作简短的介绍性发言。;
[35:30.35]在这个信息时代,中国没 有哪一个产业像网络产业 发展得这么快。;
[35:38.51]这个产业在我国被称之 为“朝阳产业”,我想在 世界其他地方也是 如此。;
[35:48.16]但是,我国的网络产业虽 然前途光明,却也面临着 许多挑战需要我们去应 付,;
[35:57.11]许多问题问题需要我们去 解决,否则这个行业难以 得到充分发展。;
[36:05.96]近年来网络产业急速发 展。据中国因特网信息中 心的统计数据,中国的公 共网络已覆盖365个城市,;
[36:19.69]上网电脑达520万台,经 常上网者达1,260万人以 上,网址有23,000个。;
[36:32.24]估计两年以后,中国的网 民人数将跃居全球第二, 仅次于美国。;
[36:40.79]然而,这个快速发展的产 业出现了一些问题,;
[36:46.80]其中大部分问题产业的原 因是因为中国在准备不足 的情况下飞速越入了这个 信息时代,;
[36:56.88]遇到的问题涉及到网络服 务、网络信息、电子商务 等。;
[37:04.43]要想开发一个拥有12亿人 口的市场,网络服务部门 应该改进服务,使普通用 户能轻松上网,;
[37:15.74]使上网的简便程度如同打 开家用电器一般。;
[37:21.14]中国的网络信息公司,如 著名的“新浪”和“搜狐” 公司,也正在苦战。;
[37:28.81]虽然它们吸引了大量的投 资以及媒体的关注,但因 为上网广告有限,;
[37:35.79]所以大部分公司处于入不 敷出的境地。这些公司每 天度日如年,对它们来 说,;
[37:44.91]每天面临的都是一场生 与死的较量。 中国电子商务的发展速度 大大超出了人们预料。;
[37:55.74]例如中国第一家电子商务 网站公司“8848”开张 不到8个月的营业额 已达1,250万元,;
[38:06.71]目前公司 的虚拟商店有 20多万种“上架”商品, 估计今年将达到100万种。;
[38:16.62]尽管中国电子商务的发展 引人注目,但要想进一步 发展,就必须改进付费、;
[38:25.00]交货和交易安全性这些问 题,例如引进SSL和SET这 类广泛用于万维网的安保 技术。;
[38:37.76]如果说过去的两年是中国 网络公司的起步阶段,那 么今年将是这些公司的资 本市场筛选年。;
[38:48.24]能否得到资金将决定这些 公司的生存。在这场投资 竞争中,大而强的公司将 在股市上成功上市。;
[39:00.34]“中华网”网站公司去年 7月进入纳斯达克,上市 第一天的市值就上升 了2倍。;
[39:09.51]现在已有20多家中国网络 公司申请在纳斯达克或香 港股市上市,这些网站公 司有“新浪”、“搜狐”、;
[39:21.53]“网易”,“8848”、 “找到啦”、亿唐“、 ”e龙“、易趣网”、 “酷必得”和“中国人”。;
[39:32.27]这些公司能否在海外上市 在很大程度上取决于它们 的业绩。;
[39:39.77]中国证监会认为,公司在 海外上市应该具备三个条 件:一是公司资产必须达 到4亿元;;
[39:50.91]第二是上市前一年的公司 税后利润必须达到 6,000万元;;
[39:58.98]第三是公司从股市上能筹 集到的资金不少于 5,000万美元。;
[40:07.32]为了促进中国网络产业快 速而健康的发展,我们必 须采取一些适当的措施。;
[40:16.04]我在这里提出一些建议, 供各位参考。;
[40:20.52]首先,中国应该对国内和 国外因特网市场的发展情 况、网络投资政策以及反 托拉斯政策进行研究。;
[40:33.41]第二,政府应该尽快起草 有关电信、网络投资和服 务收费等方面的法规。;
[40:43.81]第三,中国网络公司应该 尽快在国内上市。我国的 网络投资者往往把资金分 别投在不同的公司上,;
[40:56.13]我认为它们应该集中投 资,使公司具备更强的 金融能力。;
[41:05.16]Passage 2 English-Chinese Interpretation Text interpreting;
[41:17.09]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[41:27.27]Ladies and gentlemen,;
[41:29.94]Planet Earth will don an electronic skin in the not-too-distant future.;
[41:35.82]It will use the Internet as a scaffold to transmit its sensations.;
[41:42.05]This skin is being stitched together.;
[41:45.60]It consists of millions of electronic measuring devices, such as thermostats,;
[41:52.09]pollution detectors, cameras, EKGs.;
[41:55.91]These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere,;
[42:02.44]our ships, highway vehicles, our bodies — even our dreams.;
[42:08.50]It is predicted that ten years from now,;
[42:12.09]there will be trillions of such telemetric systems,;
[42:16.04]each with a microprocessor brain and a radio.;
[42:20.78]They will be in constant contact with one another.;
[42:24.72]What will the earth's new skin permit us to feel? How will we use its sensation?;
[42:32.27]For a decade or longer there will be no central nervous system;
[42:37.22]to manage this vast signaling network. And there will be no central intelligence.;
[42:44.15]But we believe that some qualities of self-awareness will emerge;
[42:49.72]once the Net is sensually enhanced and emulates the complexi- ty of the human brain.;
[42:57.27]Sensuality is only one force pushing the Net toward intelligence.;
[43:03.32]An eerie symbiosis of human and machine effort is also starting to evolve.;
[43:10.03]The Internet creates a channel for thousands of programmers around the world;
[43:15.16]to collaborate on software development and debugging. Through collaboration,;
[43:21.91]this community can push past the technical barriers to machine intelligence.;
[43:28.84]And though silicon networks today look nothing like the brain,;
[43:33.58]nodes of the Net have begun to function as neuron.;
[43:38.54]Researchers have already tackled complex computing problems,;
[43:43.18]such as interpreting interstellar radio signals;
[43:46.74]with about a million PCs working in concert.;
[43:50.55]Before long, discrete microprocessors will probably be knitted together;
[43:56.69]into ad hoc distributed computers. Don't think of these as PC networks.;
[44:03.97]The terminals would just as likely be cell phones of palm-like devices,;
[44:09.59]each one far smarter than today's heftiest desktops.;
[44:14.06]We may think of this as a whole ecology,;
[44:18.10]an information environment that's massively connected.;
[44:23.10]Such a system works on a very simple principle, that is,;
[44:27.61]"Individuals add and team players multiply";
[44:31.56]The whole will add up to more than the sum of its parts.;
[44:35.90]Individual ants, for example, can't fight off an attacking wasp, but a colony can.;
[44:43.84]A single brain cell is a simpleton,;
[44:47.00]but a few tens of billions can perform mental miracles.;
[44:51.82]The network itself will become a huge digital creature.;
[44:56.60]We will carefully design it so that it will help human beings, not harm them.;
[45:03.05]That may not be easy, however. Emergent behavior could be mis- chievous,even sinister;
[45:11.60]In a real network, the digital clans might have distinct points of view,;
[45:18.01]and one might be antithetical to another.;
[45:21.73]By the time something like that happens,;
[45:25.29]networks should gain some of the resilience and safeguards of living organisms.;
[45:30.94]Networks will learn to heal themselves. And when the earth's own skin signals danger —;
[45:38.27]seismic activity, a geomagnetic storm, or a worrisome spike in financial transactions;
[45:46.16]— the Net will sense it, alert people and reroute traffic.;
[45:52.30]Humanity is now preparing to cast its net across the solar system.;
[45:58.49]At a NASA laboratory in California,;
[46:01.38]scientists are devising a version of the Internet called InterPlaNet;
[46:06.60]that will weave the moon, Mars, and some asteroids and comets;
[46:11.16]into the earth's expanding nervous system.;
[46:15.50]Today's communications between earth and unmanned probes are expensive,proprietary,;
[46:19.58]and complex. With InterPlaNet, we can simplify everything, cut costs,;
[46:28.92]and engage the public more effectively.;
[46:32.26]Then, the earth's telemetric body will span the reaches of the solar system.;
[46:37.61]The Net may not experience all the human thrills of exploration,;
[46:42.56]but it will feel some tingles up and down its spine.;
[46:47.30]Extra Text for Practice;
[46:52.21]Passage 1 Chinese-English Interpretation;
[46:59.71]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[47:09.89]今天我想谈一下网络时代 给人们的作息安排带来的 影响。;
[47:17.78]从前人们日出而作,日落 而息。没有人关心别的地 方是否阳光灿烂。声音传 达不到地球的另一端。;
[47:30.63]时间只是一个区域性的概 念:挤牛奶有规定的时间, 割稻收麦有规定的时间坐 下来休息也有规定的时间;
[47:43.92]不知从哪一天开始,这些 都发生了变化。今天,商 务和通信二十四小时不停 地进行着。;
[47:54.97]在有线电视的新闻节目所 报道的事件不是在几点钟 发生,而是在一个小时或 30分钟前发生。;
[48:05.81]当地时间已不再是一个有 意义的时间标志。;
[48:10.81]在这个信息时代,因特网 永远不会休息,永远不会 睡觉.而人总是要睡觉的, 而且必须睡觉,;
[48:21.90]因为人若要活下去就必须 按自己的生物钟生活。然 而在这个信息时代,共同 的日常信息制度已经消亡;
[48:34.36]人与社会将从根本上受到 冲击。譬如说,我们的伙 伴也许已不是社区的 邻居,;
[48:43.96]而是电子目录上的那些 人,或许根本就不存在什 么伙伴。;
[48:51.42]二十四小时的全天候时间 表在改变着我们的生活方 式。21世纪的办公地点无 处不在。;
[49:01.55]我们外出度假时会随身携 带无线手机或手提电脑。;
[49:08.09]有些人甚至把手机带入音 乐厅和会议厅,因为在 他们看来,;
[49:14.97]错过一个重要的商业信息 是不可弥补的过失。;
[49:19.79]二十四小时的超高速的 “因特网时间”使用我们无 法静心休息和思考。;
[49:27.21]越来越多的企业行政主管 开始把自己有时间睡觉作 为吹牛的资本。;
[49:35.06]对他们来说,地位的最大 标志在于有能力按照自然 的生物钟而非网络钟来工 作和休息。;
[49:46.37]当然,从信息时代退回到 农耕时代是不可能的。 我认为,正确的态度应该 是顺应时代的潮流,;
[49:57.25]做时代的主人,而不要 做21世纪的奴隶。我们要 在这个二十四小时的因特 网时间表内,;
[50:06.50]学会按照自己的生物钟来 按排自己的生活,而不要 去追赶永不落的网络 太阳。;
[50:15.67]二十四小地拼命追赶网 络太阳无疑是一种无能的 表现,等于蜡烛两头燃。;
[50:24.92]我认为,我们既要有生有 息的生物蜡烛,又要永不 熄灭的网络电灯。;
[50:34.44]Passage 2 English-Chinese Interpretation;
[50:42.07]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[50:51.33]Ladies and gentlemen, good morning.;
[50:53.96]My topic today is "New Rules for Building Wealth in the Information Age.";
[50:59.66]The old foundations of success are gone.;
[51:03.65]For all of human history the source of success;
[51:07.11]has been controlling natural resources— land, gold and oil.;
[51:12.55]Suddenly the answer is "knowledge." The king of the knowledge economy, Bill Gates,;
[51:19.28]owns no land, no gold or oil, no industrial processes.;
[51:25.06]How does one use knowledge to build wealth?;
[51:28.92]How do societies have to be reorganized to generate a wealth-enhancing knowledge environment?;
[51:35.72]How do they incubate the entrepreneurs necessary to bring about change;
[51:40.72]and create wealth?What skills are needed?;
[51:44.45]The knowledge-based economy is asking new questions, giving new answers,;
[51:49.67]and developing new rules for the success game.;
[51:53.27]Rule I- No one ever becomes very rich by saving money.;
[51:58.92]Information technology has opened up opportunities for new products;
[52:04.10]with more advanced capabilities and new processes;
[52:08.27]with much higher levels of productivity.;
[52:11.16]This was true for John Rockefeller as it is for Bill Gates.;
[52:16.12]For both of them lifetime savings cons- tituted a small fract- ion of total wealth.;
[52:22.08]Carefully saving money and investing in normal equilibrium situations can make;
[52:28.00]one comfortable in old age but never really wealthy.;
[52:31.77]In what has come to be seen as the information revolution,;
[52:35.76]opportunities arising from new and high technology are creating fortunes;
[52:41.47]faster than ever before.;
[52:43.44]The United States has created more billionaires;
[52:46.55]in the past fifteen years than in its previous history.;
[52:50.50]Rule 2: Sometimes successful businesses have to cannibalize themselves;
[52:57.25]to save themselves. Business must be willing to destroy the old;
[53:02.39]while it is still successful if they wish to build the new;
[53:06.11]that will become successful. If they don't destroy themselves,;
[53:10.85]others will destroy them.;
[53:12.65]Disequilibrium means great threats as well as great opportunities.;
[53:18.18]Of what were the twelve largest American companies;
[53:21.64]at the beginning of the twentieth century,;
[53:23.61]eleven were not around to see the beginning the twenty-first century.;
[53:28.61]Technological breakthroughs occur, the economic environment changes,;
[53:33.88]and they could not adjust.;
[53:36.16]For example, when the microprocessor allowed the personal computer;
[53:41.29]to replace the mainfr- ame as the dominant growth market in the computer industry,;
[53:46.46]the old industrial leader, IBM, fell off a cliff, and new leaders,;
[53:51.95]Intel and Microsoft emerged.;
[53:54.62]IBM understood the new technology and wanted to compete;
[53:59.09]but could not destroy its old business to build the new.;
[54:03.83]Rule 3: Taking advantage of sociological disequilibria;
[54:09.01]and developmental disequilibria.;
[54:11.99]Entrepreneurs see sociological opportunities to change human habits.;
[54:17.56]The cruise industry took advantage of a shift in demographics:;
[54:22.29]the relative purchasing power of the elderly had doubled in two decades;
[54:27.03]Cruises,known at least since the days of Cleopatra,;
[54:31.64]became the perfect vacation for the elderly: We move you; you don't have to move;
[54:37.73]Some owners of cruise lines have become billionaires;
[54:41.59]by exploiting sociological disequilibria.;
[54:45.54]Rule 4: A successful knowledge-based economy requires large public investments;
[54:52.60]in education, infrastructure, and research and development.;
[54:56.90]Some countries are willing to invest in research and developm- ent; others are not.;
[55:02.56]For countries or companies technologic- al leadership is not the same thing;
[55:07.42]as R&D spending.Europe spends its share on research,;
[55:11.90]but if one looks at technological leadership,;
[55:14.71]that spending does not seem to be paying off. To pay off, obviously,;
[55:20.10]research has to be followed by the activities necessary;
[55:24.00]to embed the newly developed technologies in the economy.;
[55:28.13]America outclasses Europe not so much in R&D spending on infor- mation technology,;
[55:33.87]for example, as in investments in information hardware and software.;
[55:38.52]Rates of return on R&D spending are far above those found elsewhere in the economy.;
[55:45.06]Government now pays for about 30 percent of total R&D in the country,;
[55:50.49]but with a 66 percent rate of return.;
[55:53.48]Private returns are apt to be much more certain;
[55:57.03]if one is looking for an extension of existing knowledge rather;
[56:00.32]than for a major breakthrough;thus many private firms;
[56:05.23]tend to concentrate their money on the developmental end of the R&D process.;
[56:11.19]Time lags are also shorter, and in the business world speed is everything.;
[56:16.94]Rule 5: The biggest unknown for the individual;
[56:21.59]in a knowledge-based economy of this information age is how to have a career;
[56:26.28]in a system where there are no permanent careers.;
[56:30.01]Education has been a high-return as well as a high-risk investment for the individual.;
[56:36.46]When new knowledge makes old skills obsolete,;
[56:39.92]firms want to employ workers who already have that knowledge.;
[56:44.13]In the second half of the 1990s, profitable American companies laid off;
[56:49.79]more than half a million workers each year despite the economic boom.;
[56:54.48]The old career ladders are gone. The old lifetime employees are gone.;
[57:00.75]Explicitly or implicitly, today's college graduates are given a message :;
[57:06.41]You are unlikely to have a lifetime career in any one company.;
[57:11.46]You are going to have to learn to take responsibility for and manage your own career;
[57:17.20]Regular annual wage increases are a thing of the past.;
[57:21.37]In a fast-changing world,;
[57:23.43]older employees too often bring obsolete experience and out-of-date skills.;
[57:29.26]There are always a lot of young potential employees who look more promising.;
[57:34.31]To summarize, the information revolution is making obsolete old institutions;
[57:40.01]and old modes of operation, requiring the individual, the firm,;
[57:45.09]and the nation to change. For the individuals, here are three words of advice:;
[57:51.94]knowledge,information, skills. The economic prospects of those without knowledge,;
[57:59.26]information and skills are bleak. For the firms, canni-balization.;
[58:05.97]That is, a company should deliberately destroy existing profitable activities;
[58:11.63]to allow for new and more promising business operations.;
[58:15.49]And for the nations, investment.;
[58:18.08]A country expecting a sustainable economic growth;
[58:21.67]should constantly increase investment in education, infrastructure and R&D;
 
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