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Listen To This3lesson 19

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News in Brief
News Item 1:
General Comprehension. Fill in the blanks to complete the following statements.
1. made these remarks about the Soviet troops. (Write down the name.)
2. His official title is .
3. These remarks actually concern
  .
4. Shevardnadze said,
  " ."
5. These remarks were made during held in .
6. He is in now.
7. He is going to over the weekend.

News Item 2:
1. Fill in the blanks according to what you have heard on the tape.
(1) The next space shuttle is scheduled on .
(2) NASA announced for the years.

2. Complete the following chart concerning the specific number of shuttle launches. Please remember that the Challenger exploded early 1986 and this announcement was made later the same year.
Number of Launches ?? Time
(1) 5 ?? will shoot in
(2) More than 10 ?? had been planned for the year until the Challenger exploded)
(3) 16 ?? will shoot every year in the

3. Choose the best answer (a, b, c, or d) to complete each of the following statements.
(1) The new shuttle program will be different from that of the past because _____________.
a. NASA administrators are strongly affected by the explosion of the Challenger
b. fewer shuttle launches will be made every year from now on
c. NASA has been predicting a decline in financial support for its program
d. new shuttles will carry a much different mix of cargoes
(2) A list of priority for the ranking of various projects is ____________.
a. NASA space exploration, military projects, commercial satellites
b. military projects, NASA space exploration, commercial satellites
c. military projects, commercial satellites, NASA space exploration
d. commercial satellites, NASA space exploration, military projects

News Item 3:
1. Identification. Match each item in Column I with one item in Column II by recognizing the person's position.
Column I                 Column II
(1) John Zaccaro         a. former presidential candidate
(2) Geraldine Ferarro     b. campaign manager
(3) Michael Nussbaum     c. husband of Geraldine Ferarro
(4) Donald Mannis         d. late Queens Borough President

Answer: (1) ?? ; (2) ?? ; (3) ?? ; (4) ??

2. Focusing on Details. Fill in the detailed information according to what you have heard.
    John Zaccaro has been by in Queens, New York. The and quote a source close to Zaccaro, saying that the is the result of in the awarding of .

News in Detail
1. General Comprehension. Choose the best answer (a, b, c, or d) to complete each of the following statements.
(1) Mark your calendar for the next shuttle take-off for _________.
a. February 18, 1986
b. February 18, 1987
c. February 18, 1988
d. February 18, 1989
(2) The Agency had been planning to launch in 1986 __________.
a. only five shuttles
b. less than ten shuttles
c. at least ten shuttles
d. more than sixteen shuttles
(3) NASA ___________ to send a teacher into space.
a. is holding a widely publicized competition
b. had no specific plans until the Challenger exploded
c. is making new plans for the early 1990s
d. is not making any specific plans at the moment
(4) James Fletcher believes that civilians will be flying again ____________.
a. but not in the first year
b. probably in the first year
c. until oppositions to the plan can be lessened
d. until NASA is able to collect sufficient money for the plan
(5) The one program in shuttle mission that is more prominent than the others is __________.
a. the military
b. NASA space exploration
c. the Hubble Telescope
d. commercial business satellites
(6) The military program includes the following except ____________.
a. military communications satellites
b. the Hubble Telescope
c. secret Star Wars tests
(7) All US commercial space cargo will in the future have to fly on __________.
a. military rockets
b. NASA space shuttles
c. private industries' rockets
d. rockets of foreign countries

2. Vocabulary Exercises. List all the words or phrases, from the selection, which contain the meaning of "sending off (the shuttle) into space."
Answer:

Special Report
1. Complete the chart for Forbes' 1986 list of the 400 wealthiest people in America.
Rank: First
Name:
Occupation:
Worth: $

Others
Name:
Occupation:

Name:
Occupation:

Name:
Occupation:

Name:
Occupation:
Worth: over $

2. Focusing on Details. Fill in the blanks with specific figures.
(1) The minimum figure needed to get on the list rose from in 1985 to $ in 1986.
(2) The number of billionaires jumped from to .

3. Fill in the blanks to complete the following statements.
(1) Malcolm Forbes (is/isn't) left out of this list.
(2) started the list of the wealthiest people in America. He is an of magazine.
(3) He started this list ago.
(4) He started because thought that people would .
(5) He has encountered some problems with in working out the list.
(6) Some of these achieve such wealth through ; others are new wealth.

4. Spot Dictation. Listen to the tape again and fill in the following blanks.
    At some point, everybody, had to be earned the way. And the way is, you a business that can be beyond the . It can be , like John D. Rockefeller did with . It could be, you know, an organization that can like Merv Griffin.

5. Choose the best answer (a, b, c, or d) to complete each of the following statements.
(1) As to the worth of Michael Carrier, the figure of a few hundred million dollars on the list is ____________.
a. underestimated
b. overestimated
c. accurate
d. fabricated
(2) When someone writes in and say "You're missed me," ______________.
a. he is rather angry about being missed
b. he is usually exaggerating
c. he is actually serious about it
d. he is deliberate misleading the editor of the magazine

6. Complete the following chart.
  Youngest on the List
  Name:
  Age: years old
  Source of wealth: on his side
  Worth: several dollars
  Place:

  Oldest on the List
  Name:
  Age: years old
  Source of wealth: some and
  Worth: / 
  Place:

United Press International
 

    News agency formed in 1958 by the merger of the United Press, founded in 1907, and International News Service, founded in 1909. It has also 6,500 subscribers throughout the world.

The Hubble Space Telescope
 

    The most powerful orbiting observatory currently under construction. Its 2.4-meter-wide reflector telescope is designed to observe objects one-fiftieth as bright as those that can be seen with present earth-based telescopes and its resolution will be at least ten times higher.

1. Forbes
    A semi-monthly business magazine founded by Bertie Charles Forbes (1880??1954) in 1917.

2. Sam Moore Walton
    Retail discount chain company executive. He was born in Oklahoma. He got his B.A. at the University of Missouri in 1940 and became a trainee at J. C. Penny, Des Moines, Iowa. He was the branch owner of Ben Franklin Stores from 1945, and co-owner and chairman of Wal-Mart Stores at Bentonville Arkansas.

3. IRS
    IRS stands for the Internal Revenue Service which is a bureau of the United States Treasury Department. It is the federal agency charged with the administration of the tax laws passed by Congress. The IRS functions through a national office in Washington, seven regional offices, sixty-three district offices, and ten service centers.

4. John Davison Rockefeller
    John Davison Rockefeller (1839??1937) was a well-known American industrialist and philanthropist. He acquired a near-monopoly of oil refining in the United States. He endowed an institute for medical research with five hundred million dollars (1901), and also gave generously to educational, scientific and religious funds.

5. Standard Oil Companies
 

    Major units of the US oil industry incorporated (1870) in Ohio by John D. Rockefeller, who became the first president. As a result of US antitrust legislation, the organization was broken up (1910) into more than thirty companies. The international units include the Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), known as "Jersey Standard" or "Esso", Socony Mobil Oil Company and the Standard Oil Company of California. The Standard Oil Company (Indiana) has traditionally dominated the domestic US industry.

Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze said today that some Soviet troops will begin pulling out of Afghanistan within a few days. The remarks came during a news conference held in Ottawa. Shevardnadze told reporters, "We would like to see our boys back home as soon as possible." Shevardnadze is now in Mexico where he will meet with top government officials over the weekend.


The next space shuttle mission is planned for lift-off on February 18th, 1988. Today NASA announced its schedule of launches for the next 7 years. NPR's Daniel Zwerding reports: "The new launch schedule is pretty much what NASA's been predicting since shortly after the challenger exploded, NASA administrator James Fletcher said the agency will shoot for only five shuttle launches the first year, 1988, and that's less than half the number that NASA had been planning for this year until the accident happened. Fletcher said NASA will slowly work its way up to 16 launches a year in the early 1990s. And as administration officials have been predicting, those shuttles will carry a much different mix of cargoes than the shuttles of the past. For at least the first three years, military projects will fill more than half the flight. The Pentagon is way behind launching secret Star Wars tests and military communication satellites. NASA space exploration projects will get next priority, such as the Galileo and Ulysses satellites to study Jupiter and the sun. And commercial business satellites, which were originally supposed to be the financial backbone of the shuttle program, will get only a small fraction of the space in the shuttle cargo bays. I'm Daniel Zwerdling in Washington."


There are reports today that John Zaccaro, husband of former presidential candidate, Geraldine Ferarro, has been indicted by a local grand jury in Queens, New York. The Associated Press and United Press International quote a source close to a criminal investigation of Zaccaro, saying the indictment is the result of a probe of bribery allegations in the awarding of cable television contracts. The grand jury has been investigating the activities of Zaccaro and Michael Nussbaum, Campaign Manager of the late Queens Borough President, Donald Mannis.


If you want to watch the next space shuttle take-off, mark your calendar for February 18th, 1988. That is according to NASA's official new 7-year space shuttle schedule announced today. NPR's Daniel Zwerdling reports:
"During the first year, 1988, the agency plans to launch only 5 shuttles, less than half the number they'd been planning to launch this year until the Challenger accident happened. In 1989, they'll launch 10 shuttles, and then slowly work their way up to 16 flights a year in the early '90s. By then, the Agency officials said today, they'll have built the new 4th safer shuttle although they don't know yet exactly where they'll get the money and they'll start building a permanent space station. The new shuttle program looks a lot more sober than the previous one did. "No," said NASA administrator James Fletcher, "there are no specific plans to send up another teacher or journalist. Until the Challenger exploded, of course, NASA was holding a widely publicized competition to send a reporter into space."
"There's a lot of opposition from some quarters to flying any so-called civilians in space, but my bias is, that yes, in time, civilians will be flying again back in space, but certainly not in the first year. I think we want to get our act together first before we start taking a risk of that sort. And as administrative officials have been predicting, the shuttles will carry a much different mix of cargoes than NASA had been planning until the accident. The military will be much more prominent than ever before. For at least the first two years, the Pentagon will fill more than half the shuttle flights with secret Star Wars tests and military communication satellites. NASA space exploration projects will get next priority, such as the Hubble Telescope, which will see closer to the edges of the universe than any telescope in the past. As for commercial business satellites, which were originally supposed to be the financial backbone of the program, most of them will be bumped for lack of space. Under President Reagan's orders, all commercial space cargo launched in the US will eventually have to fly on private industries' own rockets. I'm Daniel Zwerdling in Washington."


Forbes magazine yesterday published its annual list of the 400 wealthiest people in America. Sam Moore Walton, founder of the Wal-Mart Department Store chain heads the list for the second year in a row with a total worth of 4.5 billion dollars. Other familiar names on the list include chicken producer Frank Perdue; fashion designer Ralph Lauren, and TV producers Merv Griffin and Dick Clark, each worth more than the minimum $180,000,000 needed to get on the list. That minimum figure was up from 150,000,000 last year. Also the number of billionaires jumped from 14 to 26. We asked Forbes' Editor Harry Seneker to help us interpret those figures.
"Well, it shows that the rich do get richer, and it also shows that we've been doing a little more of our homework each year. It's quite a lot of work to refine your estimates of what people's assets are worth when they are not very eager to co-operate with you. And each year we get a little better. Each year we find a few new ones that we'd missed before."
"And some people are left off this list because they don't co-operate, Malcolm Forbes, for one."
"Oh no, he's in there. It's just that we wouldn't for the life of us, say exactly where."
"You started this list about 5 years ago. Why did it start? Why do you continue to do it?"
"Why? Well, it started … the short answer for why it started is that Malcolm Forbes thought that people would be interested in it and insisted on us doing it and doing it right."
"But he didn't want to cooperate himself."
"Well, you run into certain problems with the IRS and inheritance taxes if you put a number on yourself. You want to negotiate that figure, or your heirs do."
"Is there any commonality to how these people have achieved such wealth? Did they earn it the old-fashioned way?"
"Well, at some point, everybody, every fortune had to be earned the old-fashioned way. And the old-fashioned way is, you set up a business that can be multiplied indefinitely beyond the limitations of your own personal efforts. It can be an oil business, like John D. Rockefeller did with the Standard Oil Trust. It could be, you know, an organization that can produce dozens of game shows like Merv Griffin."
"But of most of them that are on the list, say, this year, are they new to the list, new wealth, or is this mostly inherited fortunes?"
"There's a mix of both. You know, the new arrivals are mostly new wealth. Every once in a while, we find a branch of an old family that we really should have included. And this year we found a few Melons out there in Pittsburgh."
"Who's the youngest on the list this year?"
"One of those. His name is Michael Carrier. But, you know, he goes back to the Melons on his mother's side."
"And he is how old?"
"He's twenty-five."
"And how much is he worth?"
"On the order of a couple of hundred million dollars. You should understand with people like the Melons, it is enormously hard to get a sense of just how much is out there. We think we're being conservative with that figure."
"What about the oldest? Who's the oldest on the list?"
"The oldest is a lady named Dorothy Stimson Bullit. And she's known out in the Washington State. She has some radio stations and real estate out there. The lady is ninety-four."
"Do you get any mail response from this? People write in and have comments about it?"
"We get people writing in saying, 'Gee, you missed so-and-so.' Once in a while, we get somebody who writes in and says, 'You missed me.' He's usually exaggerating."
Harry Seneker, Senior Editor of Forbes magazine.
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