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课本中不会教你的753 介词+which和介词+whom引导的定语从句

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2019年04月03日

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753 介词+which和介词+whom引导的定语从句

◎ which和whom都可以用来引导定语从句,分别指物和人。which和whom引导定语从句并作宾语时,既可以作及物动词的宾语,也可以作介词的宾语。作介词宾语时,要注意下面几个方面。

① which和whom引导非限制性定语从句时,介词要放在which和whom的前面。

They came to the river bank,along which there were many trees. 他们来到了河岸边,沿岸有许多树。

He lives in that house,in front of which stands a pine tree. 他住在那所房子里,房前有一棵松树。

They dug a deep well,from which they could draw water. 他们打了一口深井,从中可以取水。

The tower stands on a hill,below which are wheat fields. 那座塔位于一座小山上,山下都是麦田。

In the garden sat an old man,around whom some children were playing. 院子里坐着一位老人,一些儿童在他周围玩耍。

② which和whom引导限制性定语从句时,介词可以放在它们的前面,也可以放在原来的位置上。

This is the room in which he lives. 这就是他住的房间。

This is the room (which)he lives in. (这时which可省)

他唯一没有把握的是天气。

The only thing about which he was not sure was the weather.

The only thing (which)he was not sure about was the weather.

这就是我们经常听说的那位作家。

Here is the writer about whom we've heard so much.

Here is the writer (whom)we've heard so much about. (这时whom可省)

你借给他词典的那位同学要见你。

The student to whom you lent the dictionary wants to see you. (lend sth. to sb. 为固定搭配)

The student (whom)you lent the dictionary to wants to see you.

③ 如果是含有介词的动词固定词组,介词不可放在which或whom的前面,只能放在原来的位置上。

Here is the book which you are looking for.

你找的书在这里。

Here is the book for which you are looking.

这些是你们今天必须复习的单词。

These are the words which you must go over today.

These are the words over which you must go today.

这就是他多年来一直照顾的那个女孩。

This is the girl whom he has taken care of for many years.

This is the girl of whom he has taken care for many years.

④ 用于which或whom前面的介词必须符合习惯用法,即:必须符合习惯搭配。

The bus by which he came broke down. 他来时乘坐的那辆公交车坏了。(by bus为习惯搭配)

The pencil with which she wrote the letter was blue. 她用来写信的铅笔是蓝色的。(write with pencil为习惯搭配)

The wall over which he jumped is two meters high. 他跳过去的那堵墙两米高。(jump over为习惯搭配)

The teacher from whom you borrowed the book has moved to Beijing. 借书给你的老师迁到北京去了。(borrow sth. from为习惯搭配)

比较

This is the box for which he paid twenty yuan. 这就是他花20元买的那只箱子。(pay money for为习惯搭配)

This is the box in which he put all his clothes. 这就是那只他存放所有衣服的箱子。(put sth. in为习惯搭配)


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